Plastic and elastic deformation are two fundamental processes that occur in materials under the influence of an external force. The difference between the two is based on how much a material will deform or change shape, when subjected to a load. While both types of deformation can be beneficial for certain applications, they each have unique characteristics which must be considered when selecting a material for use.
Write a technical report , on plastic and elastic deformation.
Elastic deformation is characterized by reversible changes in shape or size, with the original form being restored once the applied load is relieved. This type of behavior occurs in most metals, polymers and ceramics at room temperature and low stresses, though some materials like glass exhibit limited elasticity. It is due to recovery after unloading that allows engineering components to return to their intended design geometry following assembly or repair work; however this property can also lead to fatigue failure if sufficient loading cycles are repeated over time.
In contrast, plastic deformation refers to permanent changes in material shape as a result of stress beyond its yield strength (the point at which it yields). In other words, any displacement from its original form remains even after the load has been removed – this property makes it useful for forming parts into desired shapes such as those used in automobile manufacturing and construction industries. Plastic strain generally takes place first during bending or shearing operations at higher temperatures than those typical for elastic behaviors and may require specialized equipment depending on the structure being altered – extrusion presses or rolling mills might be required along with heat treatments afterward if necessary (e.g., hardening). Also note that there are various degrees of plasticity ranging from very mild strains occurring near room temperature up through severe forms requiring extreme pressures/temperatures before yielding occurs – eutectic alloys tend towards exhibiting more plastic behavior compared with simpler metal composites due more homogeneous microstructure allowing easier sliding between grains without cracking them apart upon application tension forces (as can happen with brittle crystals).
Plastic deformations often lead to visible surface imperfections including cracks along grain boundaries (due different thermal expansion coefficients), localized thinning regions where metal has been strained beyond its breaking point leading toward eventual fatigue failure if not addressed soon enough – knowing these potential issues beforehand helps engineers plan accordingly so safety factors remain high throughout product life cycle; additionally coating thicknesses may need adjustment over time if serrations start appearing on exterior surfaces from too much stretching/compressing while forming components together during assembly operations (especially true when dealing with softer metals like aluminum alloy series 6000 grades). One should also take into account other considerations like what type of loads will actually be experienced: static loading conditions vs dynamic ones since this has significant implications regarding physical properties needed within particular component design configurations? These answers vary widely depending upon specific application requirements but understanding basics behind both elastic/plastic deformations should aid decision making process going forward—if possible stick primarily towards former when working within tight tolerances although latter cannot always be avoided given certain circumstances present so best practices must still followed close attention paid towards overall system integration efforts!