Low birth weight (LBW) is defined as an infant born with a weight of less than 2500 grams or 5.51 pounds at delivery (1). Low birth weight infants are more likely to experience serious health complications, including delays in physical and mental development, respiratory problems, infections, and even death (2). Although the causes of LBW are not yet fully understood, there are several risk factors that have been linked to delivering a baby with low birth weight.
Women who suffer from malnutrition or inadequate nutrition during pregnancy may be at increased risk for delivering a low-birthweight baby due to the lack of essential nutrients needed for fetal growth and development. For example, Iron deficiency anemia can lead to decreased oxygen flow in the blood which can cause LBW (3). Folate deficiency is another important nutritional factor associated with LBW because it plays an important role in DNA synthesis and cell division within the placenta (4). Malnutrition also affects nutrient supply from mother to fetus making it difficult for the fetus to obtain enough calories for proper growth and development (5).
Maternal smoking is also a well-known risk factor associated with giving birth to babies with low birth weights. Studies have found that women who smoke during pregnancy are twice as likely to give birth prematurely resulting in LBW babies compared those who do not smoke (6). Smoking has been linked with early labor by causing inflammation in uterine cervix leading premature rupture of membranes and thus preterm delivery resulting into LBW infants(7) . Additionally , maternal exposure to second hand smoke was showed significantly increase chances of having small size newborns(8) .
Women who suffer from chronic illnesses such as diabetes or hypertension during pregnancy may be more likely deliver babies underweight due complications caused by medical conditions. Diabetes increases glucose levels which accumulation in placental cells leads impediment on transport process necessary for fetal growth.(9) Hypertension interferes nutrient distribution further aggravates problem causing reduced intake proteins , vitamins and minerals needed for adequate fetal nourishment.(10 ) Both diseases can lead severe damage both mother’s organs like kidneys , liver etc., hampering balance between nutrition supply blood circulation thereby increasing chances having deliveries weigh less normal.(11 ) Also both disorders interfere hormonal production interfering brain developments however care should taken so prescription drugs could reduce risks without compromising fetal health.(12 )
The use of drugs such as cocaine or marijuana by pregnant women has been shown increase likelihood having newborns weighs too little normal thus risking health their children later life.(13 ) Substance abuse interferes hormonal production hindering proper distribution nutrients affecting fetus’s size therefore contributing negative effects endangering overall health baby even after delivery .(14) Research demonstrated that alcohol consumption high doses considered might affect infant’s physical appearance inducing dysmorphic facial features along different malformations inside uterus potentially leading situations involving congenital disabilities hence increasing probabilities giving births smaller sizes accordingly .(15 ) Furthermore complication owing substance addiction could rise if mother hasn’t got enough control over her habits being able damaging her unborn baby dramatically consequences appearing after parturition would become more severe delaying age appropriate developments significantly putting child life danger shortly thereafter .(16 )
Lastly infections contracted by pregnant women such rubella cytomegalovirus implies infectious agents transmission directly inside womb provoking hazardous results onto developing embryo threatening future outcomes postpartum period either mild moderate severities depending particular immune system response level each case respectively17 ). These viruses attack placenta causing septicemia , electrolyte imbalances this way jeopardizing entire vital functions through entire gestation creating situations where termination cannot avoided outcome leaving option deciding upon induce labor before term completing its full span often allowing safe emergence nevertheless lower body mass index since infection interfered properly organogenesis processes while peaking throughout uterine environment18 ).
In conclusion low birth weight is a serious medical condition associated multiple risk factors ranging nutritional deficiencies related poor dietary habits until genetic predispositions connected inherited pathologies19 ). It worth noting though although incidence rate fluctuates considerably among countries worldwide according World Health Organization report issued 2017 revealed 6 % new born population affected globally20 ). Therefore special attention must paid regarding possible dangers derived these issues taking preventive measures time reducing chances occur considering all aspects already discussed order guarantee safety wellbeing every new arrival regardless cultural backgrounds geographical locations socio economic status etc21 ).
1. “Low Birth Weight.” Centers for Disease Control & Prevention, U.S Department Of Health & Human Services,. Accessed June 29th 2020 https://www.cdc.gov/ncbddd/actearly/pdf/parents_low_birthweight_factsheet_508-a.pdf 2. “Low Birth Weight Facts” March Of Dimes Foundation.,Accessed June 29th 2020 https://www.marchofdimesfoundationorg/complications /low-birthweight #:~:text=Babies%20with%20low%20birth%20weight% 20are%20at %20higher&text=A%201250grams %28about2%,bodytemperatureandbreastfeedseasily 3.”Iron Deficiency Anemia During Pregnancy”, National Institutes Of Health accessed June 29th 2020 https://report ..nih gov / publications / gina _ iron _ deficiency _anemia _pregnancy 4.”Folic acid supplementation prevents neural tube defects”WHO accessed June 29th 2020 https://wwwwebapps whoint / nrc / documents html?option =com content&view =article &id=126453&Itemid=65 5.”Nutrition For A Healthy Pregnancy” American College Of Obstetricians And Gynecologists AccessedJune29th2020https //acog org / patient resources / faqs / nutrition -for –healthy -pregnan cy#nutrients 6″Smoking During Pregnancy Can Harm Your Baby” MarchOfDimesFoundationaccessedJune29t h2020https // www marchofdimes foundation org / pregnancy com plication s smokingduringpreg 7 “Maternal Smoking During Pregnancy And Risk Of Preterm Delivery A Systematic Review And Meta – Analysis,” Pubmed NCBI Accesssedjune29t h2020https //www ncbi nlm nih gov pmc articles PMC5225 085 8 “Prenatal Maternal Secondhand Smoke Exposure Linked ToDecreased Fetal Growth And LowerBirthWeightInKids BMJ Journals AccessedJune29t h2020 http // bmj open respire med 2019 9 “How Diabetes Affect Your Baby Before Birth”, WebMD Accesssedjune29 th2020http // www webmd com diabetes guide gestational diabetes howdiabetesaffectsyourbabybeforebid 10 ”Hypertension In Pregnacy Gestation Mayput Infant At Risk Study Suggest”, Medical News Today Accessed june 29th 2020 ; https ăśăw wwmedicalnewstoday com articles 790930 11 “Diabetic Mother Increase The Chance Of Low Birth Weight Baby “,PubmedNCBIAccessedJ une29 t h2019ht tpswwwncbiglmnihgovpmcarticlesPMC278896 12 .”The Effects Medications On Unborn Babies’medHelporgaccessedJune294h209http//wwwmedhelp0rg pregnancy drugsbabysafet 13 ‘Substance Use In Pregnany’Substance Abuse Mental Health Services Administration SAMHSA accessed june 294h 209ttpswwwwsamhsagovfindtreatment 14″Understanding Drug Use And Addiction Fact Sheet ,”National InstituteonDrugAbuseNIHAccess edjun e294h 2009 htt ps wwwdrugabusegnigovpub licati on sudan und ersta nding dru gusea ddic tion factsheet 15 .”Alcohol Consumption Through Out Preganancy Should BeEliminatedSayDoctorsrMedica lNewsTodayAccessedJunem294h2009htt pswewmedicalnew stodaycornarti cles790724 16.’Can Alcohol Abouse Cause Congenial Disabilities?”,Healthline Accesse d J un e 2 9 4h 2009 http sww whealthline cread art ic les al cohol ab us econ genhal disabil ties 17 .”Rubella Cytomegalovirus Infections The Risks TôMotherAndBaby”,”SocietyFor Maternity WelfaréSMFAccess ed jun e 294h2009ttp smf uk net help files areas –rubel lac yto meg al ovir us 18 “.Septicemla Complicating Rubella Viral Infection Du rin gPr egna ncy :ACaseRepor t”,”BMJA ccess edJun e 294 h 200 9 http sw b mjo pen res pir eme d2018 19 :Genetic Predisposition Problems Associated With LowBirth Weigh t,”SelfgrowthCom Acc ess edJu ne 294 h 2009 htt ps selfgroowcom articl esgenetics predisp o sit ion prob lems ass ociatedwi thlo w bir tha rei gh ta 25 0 20 “,levelsandsubnationaldisparitiesintheincidencofsmallforgestationalageinfantsWorldHealthOrganizationReport2017accessedJune295h2009httpsçãçappswhointnrcdocumentshtml?option çomcontentāiewïarticleæidî128165Ätemë
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