How the inefficiency of Stop-and-Wait protocol is overcome in sliding window protocol?

Stop-and-Wait protocol is a widely used data link layer protocol as it provides several advantages such as simplicity, low implementation complexity and reliable transmission of data. It enables the receiver to send an acknowledgement (ACK) for each frame that it receives from the sender. The ACK contains the sequence number of the last frame in order received at the receiver. This process helps ensure that all frames were successfully transmitted and received by the receiver.

However, Stop-and-wait also has some major drawbacks when compared to other protocols such as Sliding Window Protocols. One of its biggest flaws is its inefficient data transfer rate due to its single packet at a time approach which results in significant overhead in terms of time spent waiting for acknowledgements and retransmissions of lost packets due to errors or noise on communication links.

Sliding window protocol was developed with an aim to overcome this limitation imposed by Stop-And-Wait protocol by allowing multiple frames at one time instead of just one frame per cycle so that better throughput performance can be achieved over noisy communication channels while still maintaining reliability like Stop And Wait protocol does through ACK/ NACK system . Sliding window operates using two parameters – window size (W) and stepsize (S). Window size indicates maximum number of frames that can be sent without receiving any ACK/NACK while Stepsize determines how far ahead sender can move after receiving an acknowledgement from receiver indicating successful delivery up until then . For example if S=2 & W =4 , sender sends 4 frames and waits for acknowledgement from receiver before sending next batch . When Receiver sends acknowledgment ,stepsize is added onto current position giving us new starting location from where next batch offrames will be sent . In case offrame drops out due too error ,receiver will Nack out only those particular indices rather than whole set this reduces amountovertime taken too re transmit dropped frames thus increasing effectivethroughput performance significantly .

How the inefficiency of Stop-and-Wait protocol is overcome in sliding window protocol?

Another benefit offered by sliding window protocols over stop&wait is eliminationof scenarioswhere sender has noframe leftsend after previous one was successfully delivered but still awaiting acknowledgement whichmeans there are periods empty slots available between transmissions reducing overall efficiency further morecables latency introducedby motion controlled sensors especiallyin industrial environments which requiressender topause momentarilytoreceive sensor readings thereby adding further delays into equation even if total latency isn’t severely impacted since single packetatatime approach utilizedstop& waitprotocol doesn’t allowfor best utilization cable bandwidth during these events eitherresultingevenlower effectivethroughputs

Apartfromallabove mentioned benefits slidingwindow also offers increasedbandwidthutilization particularlyin cases where both routers have sufficiently high bandwidth capabilities allowing themto sustain high degreeof simultaneoustransmissionsthus resulting higher dataratesdue towide application range rangingfromethernettowirelessnetworkingslidingwindow remains popularchoiceamong industry professionalsdespiterequiringrelatively compleximplementationwhencompared against simpler stop&wait alternative

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