Explain why 4-nitrobromobenzene 21 predominates in the product mixture over the 2-nitrobromobenzene 22

4-Nitrobromobenzene 21 (4-NBB) predominates in the product mixture over 2-nitrobromobenzene 22 (2-NBB) due to a phenomenon known as regioselectivity. Regioselectivity is a type of selectivity that is based on the location of functional groups within a molecule and plays an important role in determining which products will form during chemical reactions. In this instance, 4-NBB predominates because it has more favorable reaction conditions than 2-NBB.

Explain why 4-nitrobromobenzene 21 predominates in the product mixture over the 2-nitrobromobenzene 22

The most likely cause for 4-NBB forming more than 2-NBB is due to steric hindrance. When two substituents are located close together or near each other, they can experience a phenomenon known as steric hindrance or steric effect where one group physically blocks another group from reacting with the reagent, preventing them from achieving their maximum potential reactants states. This means that generally speaking, substrates with fewer bulky substituents will be able to react more easily since there is less likelihood of steric hindrance occurring. Since 4-NBB has fewer bulky substituents than 2-NBB (only one instead of two), it experiences less steric hindrance and therefore allows for higher yields during the reaction process compared to its counterpart .

In addition to having less bulky substituents than 2-NBB, 4- N BB also exhibits greater electronic effects when undergoing nitration reactions involving bromo molecules like itself and others derived from benzene derivatives such as phenol and aniline derivatives. For example, when bromo compounds are nitrated by sulfuric acid/nitric acid mixtures under acidic conditions at room temperature (25°C), electron withdrawing groups on aromatic rings can increase the rate of electrophilic substitution via both ionization and resonance effects so that the halogen atom becomes activated enough to be replaced by nitrogen atoms generated through nitration using strong acids like sulfuric acid/nitric acid mixures). As such, electron withdrawing groups located on aromatic rings like those found in 4 – N BB tend o favor their formation over divalent species like what’s found in 2 – N BB since they provide increased activation energies needed for nitration reactions while also helping reduce any excessive activation energy caused by added bulkiness contributing towards lower yields when compared against mono substituted species such as 4 – N BB which have none or very few activating groups present along its ring structure .

Finally , depending on how much sulfur dioxide you use during nitrobenzene synthesis , you may end up synthesizing different ratios between the two products . If too much SO_2 is used then this could lead to preferential formation of 2 – N BB whereas if not enough SO_2 is used then this could lead to preferential formation of 4 – N BB . Therefore , it all depends upon finding that sweet spot between adding just enough SO_2 so that both compounds form but not too much so that only one type forms exclusively over another which should result in equal amounts being produced overall but with slightly varying proportions between them , thus allowing us explain why we see predominantly more 4 – N BB over its counterpart given these constraints at hand

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