Long bones are the most common type of bones found in animals and humans. They have a distinct shape that is comprised of a long, narrow shaft or diaphysis, with two thick ends called epiphyses. Together, these make up the entire bone. The longitudinal axis of the long bone is made up of three layers: an outer layer called the periosteum, a middle layer called the cortex, and an inner layer which houses fatty marrow known as medullary cavity.
The outermost layer of a long bone is composed of dense connective tissue and forms the protective covering over its surface – this is what we call the periosteum. It serves to provide nutrition to deep underlying structures and help stabilize newly formed cells within the interior. This layer also has several nerve endings which supply sensory information about touch or pressure to the central nervous system (CNS). Additionally, it contains osteogenic (bone-forming) cells that generate new bone matrix when needed during development or repair processes in adults.
The middle layer of a long bone is made up mostly by compact bone tissue; however collagen fibers can be present too depending on region/site within this particular structure. This part also consists mainly from calcium hydroxyapatite crystals which gives strength to this structure as well as providing protection against mechanical forces such as compression or tension shocks for example during running exercise activity involving lower limb muscles in humans.
Describe the structure and function of a long bone components. (including cells and matrix).
Last but not least there’s also an inner section consisting mainly by spongy (cancellous) bony tissue which surrounds hollow sections containing embryonic fat cells known as marrow – red blood cell production takes place here too hence why it’s referred sometimes like haematopoietic tissue . These cavities are connected via vascular channels allowing nutrients from outside circulation systems reach inside either through small vessels travelling between them or directly into their walls thanks its permeability characteristics (porosity).
In addition to these three layers, there are four types of specialized cells found within every long bone: Osteoblasts , Osteocytes , Osteoclasts and Chondrocytes . The first two are responsible for forming new matrix necessary for growth/repair processes while last one will breakdown worn out material promoting remodelling actions instead; chondrocytes on other hand produce cartilage extracellular matrix used both during formation stages but also later down life span where they may act regenerate minor injuries without need full-on healing cascade taking place at all times like those mentioned before did previously described above briefly speaking about their roles too now didn’t we?
To conclude then let me just say that despite being quite simplistic looking constructions at first glance upon observation due sheer size/shape differences throughout whole body area overall composition wise they turn out much more complex than initially thought thus requiring human expertise understand truly how amazing works indeed!