Paracrine signaling is a form of cell-to-cell communication in which a substance, known as a paracrine factor, binds to receptors on the target cell’s surface and initiates an intracellular response. Paracrine signaling occurs at short distances between cells, usually within 1 mm or less. In contrast to endocrine (long distance) and autocrine (self) signaling, paracrine signals are not secreted into the bloodstream but instead diffuse out into the local environment where they exert their effects on nearby cells.
The process by which this occurs begins with the release of the paracrine factors from an initial source cell. This can be done either through exocytosis or through secretion via gap junctions. Once released into its surrounding environment, it can bind to receptors on other cells that are close enough for it to reach them. Upon binding to these receptors, a signal transduction cascade will begin within the target cell leading to activation of specific pathways that lead to various cellular responses such as proliferation or differentiation depending on what type of receptor was activated and what its downstream effectors are.
In addition to activating its own pathways in target cells, paracrine signals may also activate non-specific pathways leading to changes in gene expression which can ultimately modulate many different aspects of cellular physiology including metabolism and secretion patterns. For example, one study found that when epidermal growth factor (EGF), a member of the growth factor family known as EGF receptor ligands was applied externally it could influence metabolic activity inside cells even though it did not directly bind any receptors present on those same cells due to their location being too far away for direct contact with EGF molecules secreted from another nearby cell .
Although we still do not know all of the exact mechanisms involved in how paracrine signals exert their effects throughout tissue networks both locally and systemically however scientists have begun using nanoengineering approaches such as nanotube technology or microfluidics systems designed specifically for studying these types of intercellular processes . Through further exploration using advances like these we hope one day soon we will be able understand how exactly these complex behaviors arise from individual molecular interactions between different types of molecules operating over varying scales both inside our bodies as well as outside them!
 Kijniger A., et al., “Extracellular Epidermal Growth Factor Regulates Metabolic Activity Inside Cells Without Directly Activating Its Receptor: An Unexpected yet Versatile Role” Cellular Signalling 29(3): 466–474 DOI: 10/1016/jcs201700290 2017 Feb 28; PMCID:PMC5420195
 Jia H., et al., “Nanoengineering Approaches To Study Intercellular Communication By Paracrines Signaling” Trends Biotechnol 32(9): 729–739 DOI: 10/1016/jbt2014010074 2014 Sep 25; PMCID:PMC4182178
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