Briefly contrast the traditional methods used to create vaccines with more recently used biotechnology techniques, including the COVID 19 mRNA vaccines. 

Traditional vaccine production methods have been used for many years and involve the use of weakened or killed viruses, bacteria, toxins, or other antigens that help to stimulate an immune response in the body. These traditional methods require a long process of laboratory attenuation which involves growing the live virus or antigen in animal cells to weaken it before being able to administer it safely as a vaccine. The major issue with this method is that it’s very time consuming and requires specialized equipment and conditions.

Briefly contrast the traditional methods used to create vaccines with more recently used biotechnology techniques, including the COVID 19 mRNA vaccines.

Biotechnology techniques such as mRNA vaccines are relatively new and offer several advantages over traditional vaccine production techniques. Instead of using live viruses or antigens like traditional methods do, mRNA vaccines utilize messenger RNA molecules (mRNA) which contain genetic instructions from the virus itself. This means that these types of vaccines can be created in much shorter periods since no attenuation step is necessary. Additionally, mRNA vaccines don’t pose any risk for replicating inside human cells since they can not be “translated” into usable proteins by them. Instead, once injected into the body, mRNA triggers an immune response against specific parts of a virus instead of working against whole-virus particles like how traditional vaccines work

The primary benefit of utilizing biotechnology techniques such as mRNA has recently become very apparent during COVID-19 pandemic due to its speedy development timeline – scientists were able to create both Moderna’s & Pfizer/BioNTech’s coronavirus Vaccines in record time using this technique compared to the often slow timelines associated with traditionally produced ones This was possible because they only needed minimal research; determining where on SARS-CoV2 proteins antibodies should bind and then quickly design their mRNAs accordingly to achieve efficient triggering on an immune response without having fully understand SARS-CoV2 genetics first via long and tedious processes usually associated with traditional vaccine development approaches.  This speed advantage makes mRNA technology particularly suitable for rapidly responding situations such as pandemics where quick action is required for effective containment efforts

Although there are numerous benefits associated with biotechnology based approaches such as increased speed in production timelines compared to more traditional ones; one must also consider some potential drawbacks when evaluating whether or not these newer technologies should completely replace existing routines . One notable example would be cost – although advances have been made towards reducing costs through engineering improvements on production yields; currently mass producing large quantities still remains expensive primarily due its reliance on complex manufacturing processes , requiring costly infrastructure investments for full viability . As well another area would be safety – while general immunogenicity remains comparable between both types ; researchers need further studies looking at possible differences between population subgroups (i.e age range , ethnicity etc.) regarding efficacy rates & adverse reactions

Overall if properly developed , biotechnology based approaches offer multiple advantages over more traditionally produced treatments including faster creation timescales & greater ease on scalability providing faster protection against infectious agents than ever before ; however due other considerations discussed here cost & safety remain important components when considering future utilization especially within larger public health programs

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